Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, persistent, unwanted, and intrusive thoughts, urges, or images (obsessions) and/or by repetitive behaviors or mental acts that patients feel driven to do (compulsions) to try to lessen or prevent the anxiety that obsessions cause. Diagnosis is based on history. Treatment consists of psychotherapy (specifically, exposure and response prevention plus, in many cases, cognitive therapy), drug therapy (specifically, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] or clomipramine), or, especially in severe cases, both.
Personality disorders in general are pervasive, enduring patterns of thinking, perceiving, reacting, and relating that cause significant distress or functional impairment. Personality disorders vary significantly in their manifestations, but all are believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Many gradually become less severe with age, but certain traits may persist to some degree after the acute symptoms that prompted the diagnosis of a disorder abate. Diagnosis is clinical. Treatment is with psychosocial therapies and sometimes drug therapy.
精神分裂症and related psychotic disorders— brief psychotic disorder, delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder—are characterized most prominently by psychotic symptoms and often by negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction.