Craniocervical junction abnormalities are congenital or acquired abnormalities of the occipital bone, foramen magnum, or first two cervical vertebrae that decrease the space for the lower brain stem and cervical cord. These abnormalities can result in neck pain; syringomyelia; cerebellar, lower cranial nerve, and spinal cord deficits; and vertebrobasilar ischemia. Diagnosis is by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Treatment often involves reduction, followed by stabilization via surgery or an external device.
我n lumbar puncture (LP), a needle is inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for laboratory testing, to measure CSF pressure, and sometimes to give intrathecal diagnostic or therapeutic agents.
颅内肿瘤可能涉及大脑或其他structures (eg, cranial nerves, meninges). The tumors usually develop during early or middle adulthood but may develop at any age; they are becoming more common among older people. Brain tumors are found in about 2% of routine autopsies.
脑膜炎is inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space. It may result from infections, other disorders, or reactions to drugs. Severity and acuity vary. Findings typically include headache, fever, and nuchal rigidity, Diagnosis is by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Treatment includes antimicrobial drugs as indicated plus adjunctive measures.
几乎一半的美国人sleep-r报告elated problems. Disordered sleep can cause emotional disturbance, memory difficulty, poor motor skills, decreased work efficiency, and increased risk of traffic accidents. It can even contribute to cardiovascular disorders and mortality.